Insect and Disease Control

To Cacao Fruit Pod
Roberto A. Grande* / Ronie C. Grande

Introduction
Dehydrated Coconut Oil (DCO) formulated thru the process of continuous of producing two opposite chemical reactions known as oxygen absorption and oxygen separation. A magnetic reactor bed is a specialized device that is composed of several formulated metals (e.g. Copper, magnets, titanium, and proprietary metal compositions) that built in a form of a chamber with different passageways. The flow passes in passageways to create separation between liquids and oxygen through the system o electrolysis at the temperature of not exceeding than 30? Celsius (outside temp.) and 180? Celsius (inside temperature). The design is to promote the liquid and oxygen (from the atmosphere) to decompose simultaneously upon entering the chamber, therefore adopting efficient and precise physical changes.

Rationale
Cacao plants are the source of much wanted seeds as main ingredient in the processing of chocolate products and other pharmaceutical and cosmetic concoctions. High demand of good seeds from cacao pods has perked up recently in the world market. However, cacao fruit is being infested by pests and diseases such as; Cacao pod rot, and pod borer, thus limiting cacao pod production. The area of experiment was previously acquired last 1990. Production of cacao was abandoned due to high rate of infestation of cacao pod rot and Pod borer up to July 2010. Cacao production was zero for almost 19 years.

Methodology
The introduction of DCO sprayed at 15 days interval cycle with the use of 250 cc atomizer prompted the use of solo 423 mistblower to formalize application of DCO to cover all fruits within the tree. More than twenty (20) of more or less than twenty- five (25) year old cacao trees were sprayed with DCO at fifteen (15) days interval at the rate of 1000cc DCO per 10 liters water.

Results
Initial observation for two weeks to initially infected pod that was sprayed with atomizer showed signs of complete arrest of initial infection of pod rot necrosis, possibly by the process of inhibition in the growth of the pod rot inoculums .as shown to figure 1,2,3,4,5,6 (See figures for reference). Infected pods reached maturity and harvested to evaluate the extent of infestation to the remaining viable part of the pod to test for viable seeds.

Likewise, less infestation to pod borer to fruits were noted as shown by fig.

The reduction the infestation and the necrosis of the infected part of the cacao is noted. The inhibition of the disease was remarkably noticeable as shown in figures 1-4

Conclusion and Recommendations
Initial application of DCO sprayed to cacao pod showed varying degrees of control to both cacao pod rot and cacao pod borer. Suggesting the conduction of further semi-commercial application is recommended. Further research on the effects of Dehydrated Coconut Oil on Phytophtora palmivora in In-vitro and In-vivo setting.

Table 1. Quality of Cocoa Bean Harvested
From September 20, 2010 to October 13, 2010

a Date Harvested Number of filled Beans Number of Unfilled Beans
1st September 10, 2010 170 70
2nd September 30,2010 988 161
3rd October 10,2010 179 79

(Fig. 1) The inhibition of Phytophtora p. upon application of Dehydrated Coconut Oil. The picture shows the inhibition of Phytophtora palmivora on a developing cacao pod. The black spots show necrosis on which shows the extent of infestation on the developing cacao pod that was inhibited upon application of Dehydrated Coconut Oil

(Fig. 2) The inhibition of infestation of Phytophtora p. on developing cacao pod showing the limitation of the extent of the infestation of Phytophtora palmivora from further infestation on the cacao pod.

(Fig. 3) The reduced degree of infestation and the noted necrosis of Phytophtora palmivora on the infested cacao pods. The presence of disease free cacao pods upon application of Dehydrated Coconut Oil were noted as shown by the cacao pod below (See arrow 2)

(Fig. 4) shows the varying degrees of infection by Phytophtora palmivora after the application of Dehydrated Coconut Oil. Note the inhibition of growth of inoculums of Phytophtora palmivora leaving necrotized black spots that are no longer produces further infestation.

(Fig.5) The limitation of infection of Phytophtora palmivora as shown by the reduced area of infection on the infected cacao pod visible by necrosis after applied with Dehydrated Coconut Oil

Curriculum Vitae:
Name : ROBERTO A. GRANDE Nickname : Bert
Present : Merville Subdivision, Magdum, Tagum City -8100 Davao del Norte,Philippines
Cellphone No. +639204147754

Educational Background:
School Year
Primary : Laguilayan Elementary School 1962
Elementary : Kabacan Pilot Elementary School 1965
High School : Mindanao Institute of Technology 1969
College : Mindanao Institute of Technology (Presently USM) 1975
Degree Finished : Bachelor of Science in Agriculture
Major in Entomology

Trainings and Experience:
1. Certified Pesticide Applicator & Pest Exterminator
2. Apiculturist (Beekeeper from 1984 to present)
3. International Course in Beekeeping & Extension (April 12 to June 7, 1988 Ruppin Institute of Technology, Israel)
4. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nation (FAO) National Beekeeping Consultant. (July 1 to August 14, 1997) assigned to DMMMSU-ATDC (Presently NARTDI), Sapilang, Bacnotan, La Union.
5. Pest & Disease Control Specialist in Banana Plantation (22 years).
6. Specialist in Apiculture Development and Extension and High Valued Horticultural Crops.
7. Extensive experience in Mechanize Ground Spray Application in the Control of Sigatoka / Freckle complex in Musa cultivar.
8. Invented Banana Blossom Injector (in March 1977), which eventually widely used throughout the banana industry.
9. Invented Banana Blossom Injector with disinfector (1988)
10. Presented the concept of PE (Polyethylene) wrapping to Rocket- sized Banana Blossom to completely produce blemish-free Banana fruit. Likewise protecting the early stage open fruits to inadvertent transfer of Moko bacteria by insects.

Employment History:
Twin Rivers Research Center:
1975 1978 - Entomology Department, Research Assistant
1979 1991 - Technical Services & Extension Division as Banana Crop & Extension Specialist
1992 1992 - Leaf Disease Control Group as Leaf Disease Control Specialist
Jan. 1998 up to the Present Private Beekeeper / Consultant / Entrepreneur
Feb. 2002 up to the Present Banana Leaf Disease Control Specialist / Operator to different Banana plantations

Stability and Phytotoxicity Evaluation of Dehydrated Coconut Oil (DCO)

Abstract:
The trial was conducted at Marsman Drysdale Biotech and Research Corp. (MDBRC) Plant Pathology Section on April 08, 2010. The study was conducted to evaluate the stability and fruit phytotoxicity of Dehydrated Coconut Oil (DCO) at different rates.

There were seven (7) treatments used: T1- 20 ml DCO + 980 ml H2O (.02%), T2- 30 ml DCO + 980 ml H2O, T3- 40 ml + 980 ml H2O, T4- DCO 3.0 li/ha + Emulsifier 1% + H2O, T5- DCO 5.0 li/ha., T6- Baycor .50 li/ha. + DCO 3.0 li/ha + Emulsifier 1% + H2O, and T7- Baycor .50 li/ha.+ DCO 5.0 li/ha. + Emulsifier 1% + H2O.

Treatments 1(DCO 20 ml + 980 ml H2O), 2 (DCO 30 ml + 980 ml H2O), 6 (Baycor .50 ml/ha + DCO 3.0 li/ha + Emulsifier 1% + H2O) and 7 (Baycor .50 ml/ha + DCO 5.0 li/ha + Emulsifier 1% + H2O) are found stable in water and fungicide emulsion. No separation of components 30 minutes after mixing while treatments 3 (DCO 40 ml + 980 ml H2O), 4 (DCO 3.0 li/ha. + Emulsifier 1% + H2O) and 5 (DCO 5.0 li/ha + Emulsifier 1% + H2O) found slightly stable due to separation of oil 20 minutes after mixing.

No fruit phytotoxicity was observed 24 hours after application on treatments 1 (DCO 20 ml + 980 ml H2O), 2 (DCO 30 ml + 980 ml H2O), 3 (DCO 40 ml + 980 ml H2O) and 4 (DCO 3.0 li/ha. + Emulsifier 1% + H2O) while treatment 6 (Baycor .50 ml/ha + DCO 3.0 li/ha + Emulsifier 1% + H2O) showed very slight water-soaking on fruits. Treatments 5 (DCO 5.0 li/ha + Emulsifier 1% + H2O) and 7 (Baycor .50 ml/ha + DCO 5.0 li/ha + Emulsifier 1% + H2O) also found slight water-soaking on fruit respectively.

Marsman-Drysdale Biotech & Research Corp.
Marsman Compound, Sto. Tomas, Davao
Tel. No.: (084) 829-2154 / Fax. No.: (084) 829-2252
Plant Pathology Section
Final Report
Ban. (O.T.) 91E Conv. Ban. (PPS 04-10)

Introduction
Dehydrated Coconut Oil (DCO) developed 100% organic, eco-friendly as insecticide, nematicide and fungicide 3 in1 thru the thermodynamics principles of Etherification process. A continuous integrated process in producing two opposite chemical reactions known as oxygen absorption and oxygen separation. It acts as repellent and eliminator, intrinsically non-toxic. The active ingredient of lethal is VAPOUR HEAT (Chilli Effect) that provides no-ground pollutants and has cleaner rates of atmospheric pollution. The distance of diffusion guarantees no environmental hazards. It is brownish to dark brown liquid color with an odor of copra and banana.

Methodology

Treatments
T1- DCO 20 ml + 980 ml H2O
T2- DCO 30 ml + 980 ml H2O
T3- DCO 40 ml + 980 ml H2O
T4- DCO 3.0 li/ha. + Emulsifier 1% + H2O
T5- DCO 5.0 li/ha + Emulsifier 1% + H2O
T6- Baycor .50 ml/ha + DCO 3.0 li/ha + Emulsifier 1% + H2O
T7- Baycor .50 ml/ha + DCO 5.0 li/ha + Emulsifier 1% + H2O

Materials:
1. Tagging materials ribbons or binder
2. Marking pens
3. Measuring equipment beakers, graduated cylinder, pipette, flask and syringe.
4. Tissue paper and aluminum foil
5. Blender
6. Chemicals
7. Water
8. Safety paraphernalia (gloves, respirator, cover all)
9. Hand sprayer
10. Camera for documentation

Procedure
Pre- application
Mixing and Preparation:

All the needed chemicals were prepared such as blender (2 liters capacity), measuring instrument, flasks, foil, tissue paper (roll), pentelpen, tag, sprayer, ballpen and paper. Needed chemicals per treatment were measured.

Oil and surfactant was pre-mixed in a blender following the treatments. The mixture was then agitated for five (5) minutes until it was properly mixed. The amount of water used was 500 ml. Fungicide and 50% water was then added and solution was agitated for five (5) minutes. The remaining amount of water was then added to complete the total amount of spray solution. It was agitated for another five (5) minutes.

The solution was then loaded into the prepared labeled container per treatments. It was then brought to trial plots. The solution was vigorously shake before it was loaded to the sprayer for application.

Post application
Stability/Compatibility Evaluation

Small volume of the solution were poured into flask and allowed to stand for 30 minutes. Separation of components or any form of incompatibilities were monitored and recorded. Evaluation was based on the following scale:
Stable solution = Solution is declared stable if no separation of component is observed 30 minutes after mixing, no colloids are formed and good suspensibility.
Slightly stable = Solution is declared slightly stable if components separate 15 25 minutes after mixing and no colloids are formed.
Unstable solution = Solution declared unstable if components separate right after mixing or 15 minutes, colloids formed and curdle solution.

Phytotoxicity Evaluation:
Newly exposed fruit or unbagged fruits were selected in the field and were tag for monitoring. The samples were sprayed with a fungicide solution using hand sprayer (single application). Phytotoxicity evaluation was done 24 hours after application of treatments.

Phytotoxicity Arbitrary Rating:
No Phytotoxicity = clean, no water soaking, no discoloration and no oil flecking on the leaves and fruits.
Very Slight = very slight water soaking, slight discoloration on the leaves and fruits ( Less than 5% of the exposed fruit area with phytotoxicity).
Slight = 5% - 10% of the exposed fruit area with phytotoxicity.
Moderate = moderate water soaking, with depression and discoloration on the fruits or moderate water soaking/ yellowing on the leaves.(11-20% of the exposed fruit area with phytotoxicity)
Moderate Severe = 21 to 30% of the exposed fruit area with phytotoxicity.
Severe = severe/ heavy water soaking, dark discoloration, peel Splitting / cracking on the fruits and necrosis on the leaves (40% or more of the exposed fruit area with phytotoxicity).

Results and Discussion

Stability:
Evaluation on Stability test showed that T1- DCO 20ml + 980 ml H2O, T3- DCO 30 ml H2O, T6- Baycor .50 li/ha.+ DCO 3.0 li/ha + Emulsifier 1%+ H2O and T7- Baycor .50 li/ha. + DCO 5.0 li/ha + Emulsifier 1% + H2O are stable in water emulsion and SOP fungicides. No separation was observed even 30 minutes after mixing, while T3- DCO 40 ml +980 ml H2O, T4- DCO 3.0 li/ha. + Emulsifier 1% + H2O and T5- DCO 5.0 li/ha + Emulsifier 1% + H2O found to be slightly stable because of the separation of oil 20minutes after mixing.

Fruit Phytotoxicity:
No fruit phytotoxicity was observed 24 hours after application on treatments 1,2,3 and 4 respectively. On the other hand T6- Baycor .50 li/ha.+ DCO 3.0 li/ha + Emulsifier 1%+ H2O showed very slight water-soaking on fruits.

Conclusion
Dehydrated Coconut Oil (DCO) in lower rates with SOP fungicide are more stable while DCO at high rates found slightly stable. DCO at a lower rate found no fruit phytotoxicity 24 hours after application.

Prepared by: EB Torculas
Noted by: GS Licuanan
Approved by: NT Yamuyam

Figure 1: Stability Evaluation (30 minutes after mixing)

Figure 2. Fruit Phytotoxicity Evaluation (24 hours after application)

 
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